延续到 并延续到 并延 过去这个时间的动作 过去这个时间
判断下列句子中黑体字部分 黑体字部分的时态 黑体字部分
  1) He said that he had written her a letter.
  2) He lived in London when he was young.
  3) The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before somebody answered it.
  4) I was doing my homework when he called me.
  5) I went to school at six.
  6) He often came to help me at that time.
  7) Dick had been smoking for ten years before he decided to give it up last year.
  8) When I saw her, she was working at the computer.
  9) We were surprised at what she had done.
  10) I waited until he had finished his work. 【练习解析】
  1) 过去完成时,had written 表明在 said 这个过去的动作之前就已经结束的动作;
  2) 一般过去时,表明过去发生的动作;
  3) 过去完成进行时,表明过去开始并延续到 somebody answered it 这个时间的动作;
  4) 过去进行时,表明在 he called me 这一时刻正在发生的动作;
  5) 一般过去时,表明过去发生的动作;
  6) 一般过去时,表明过去发生的动作;
  7) 过去完成进行时,表明过去开始并延续到 he decided 这个时间的动作;
  8) 过去进行时,表明在 I saw her 这一时刻正在发生的动作;
  9) 一般过去时,表明过去发生的动作;
  10) 过去完成时,had finished 表明在 waited 这个过去的动作之前就已经结束的动作。 【巩固练习】 (六)
  1. 判断下列各句的时态:
  1) We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.
  2) I was writing a paper in the library at 3 yesterday afternoon.
  3) The train had left before we got to the station.
  4) He was here just now.
  5) She bought the bike two years ago.
  6) The old man had been ill for a long time before he died in 19
  83.
  7) I saw him yesterday.
  8) It had been raining before you came back.
  9) We were having a meeting when he came in.
  10) By the end of 1993, this factory had produced 200000 cars.
  2. 用括号中动词的适当时态填空
  1)
  2)
  3)
  4)
  5)
  6) When I came, the students __ (do) their homework. The teacher was very angry when he __ (see) what the boys __ (do). When I arrived, the class __ (begin). When the teacher came to the classroom, they __ (do) their homework for an hour. I __ (share) a flat with him when we __ (be) students twenty years ago. She __ (not, pass) the exam yesterday because she __ (not, prepare) her lessons well.
8

  7) You __ (seem) very busy when I __ (see) you last night.
  8) I __ (find) the ring as I __ (dig) the garden.
  9) By the time Tom left school, he __ (learn) English and French.
  10) He said that he __ (work) at it for half an hour. 三、将来时 【语法讲解】 相对于现在时, 将来时就是将事件发生的时间向将来推移。 下面将现在时和将来时进行对 比: 将来时(以 do 为例) 形式 一般式 shall will work 进行式 Shall be working 将来某一时刻正在进行的动作 将来 will 完成式 Shall have worked 将来 将来某个时间或某个动作之前 之前 will 就已经完成 已经完成的动作 已经完成 【特别提醒】
  1) 在美国英语中不论是第几人称,将来时都可以用“will +动词原形” 。
  2) 由于将来完成进行时 将来完成进行时很少使用,这里将不作介绍。 将来完成进行时
  3) 一般将来时除了有 will (shall)的构成形式之外,还有: A. am (is, are) going to +动词原形,表最近打算去做的事情或可能要发生的事情。 B. am (is, are) about to +动词原形,表示即将发生的动作。 C. am (is, are) to +动词原形,表必须或计划要进行的动作。 【强化练习】 判断下列句子的时态
  1) We won’t be free tonight.
  2) This time next week she will be working in that company.
  3) I’ll have done all the work by the time you are back this evening.
  4) They will leave for Beijing tomorrow.
  5) We shall be having a business talk with Mr. Brown in a minute.
  6) The birds will have moved to the south before winter comes.
  7) He is going to meet Mary at the airport.
  8) The train will arrive soon.
  9) I’ll be waiting for you at school after supper.
  10) We hope it will have stopped raining before we set off for the picnic. 【练习解析】
  1) 一般将来时;
  4) 一般将来时;
  2) 将来进行时,表明将来某个时间正在发
  5) 将来进行时,表明将来某个时间正在发 生的动作; 生的动作;
  3) 将来完成时,表明到将来某时间将要完
  6) 将来完成时,表明到将来某时间将要完 成的动作; 成的动作;
9
用法 将来发生的动作或情况 将来

  7) 一般将来时;
  8) 一般将来时;
  9) 将来进行时,表明将来某个时间正在发 【巩固练习】 (七)
  1. 判断下列各句的时态:
生的动作;
  10) 将来完成时,表明到将来某时间将要完 成的动作。

  1) He will come and help you.
  2) By this time next year, I shall have lived here for 20 years.
  3) I’ll be back at 7:30 this evening.
  4) By this time tomorrow, I’ll be lying on the beach.
  5) Hurry up! Or she will have left before we get there.
  6) It’s going to rain.
  7) The lecture is about to begin.
  8) Hurry up! The guests will be arriving at any minute.
  9) We are to put up a new school by the river.
  10) By the end of this term, the students will have learned 2000 English words.
  2. 用括号中动词的适当时态填空
  1) I __ (believe) it when I see it.
  2) By six this evening, my parents __ (return) from their work.
  3) You’d better go back now. Your mother __ (wonder) where you are.
  4) I’m sure that you __ (go) with me.
  5) The film __ (start) by the time we get there.
  6) I’ve reminded you once; I __ (not, do) it again.
  7) This shop __ (close) down by next week.
  8) When you arrive, I __ (pick) fruit.
  9) In a few days’ time, we __ (fly) over the Pacific.
  10) By the end of this month, they __ (complete) the road construction. 四、过去将来时 【语法讲解】 过去将来时主要用来表示过去某一时间内将要发生的动作或存在的状态, 可以看成时一般 过去时和一般将来时的合并。过去将来时(以 do 为例)的形式如下:
  1) would (should) do
  2) was (were) going to do
  3) was (were) about to do
  4) was (were) to do 【强化练习】 将下列句子译成汉语
  1)
  2)
  3)
  4)
  5) He told me that he would see me off at the station. I asked her where she would spend her holiday. They were going to have a meeting. I was about to go out when a friend of mine dropped in. They were to visit the White House that afternoon.
10
【练习解析】
  1) 他告诉我他要到车站给我送行。
  2) 我问她将在什么地方度假。
  3) 他们当时正要开会。
  4) 我刚要出去,这时我的一个朋友来了。
  5) 他们计划那天下午参观白宫。 【巩固练习】 (八) 用所给动词的适当时态填空
  1) Who __ (invent) the world’s first computer?
  2) Language teachers often __ (offer) advice to language learners.
  3) Go out and get some fresh air! You __ (sit) there reading all morning.
  4) The waiter soon __(bring) him a cup of tea but the Englishman shook his head.
  5) Since his father died three years ago, he __ (not, pay) any taxes.
  6) Mary told me that she __ (see) you before.
  7) When I entered the lab, she __ (make) an experiment.
  8) My father went to Shenzhen in 1988 and he __ (work) there ever since.
  9) “What are you doing now?” “I __(prepare) my lessons for the final exam.”
  10) What __ (happen) here? There is blood on the floor.
第二讲【巩固练习】 (五 第二讲【巩固练习】 五)答案 (

  1. 判断下列各句的时态:
  1)现在完成进行时;
  2)现在进行时;
  3)现在完成时;
  4)一般现在时;
  5)现在完成时;
  2. 用括号中动词的适当时态填空
  1) have been looking;
  2) sings / is singing;
  3) have not finished;
  4) is learning;
  5) drinks / is drinking; 【巩固练习】 (六)
  1. 判断下列各句的时态:
  1)过去完成进行时;
  2)过去进行时;
  3)过去完成时;
  4)一般过去时;
  5)一般过去时;
  2. 用括号中动词的适当时态填空
  1) were doing;
11

  6)一般现在时;
  7)现在完成进行时;
  8)现在进行时;
  9)一般现在时;
  10)现在完成进行时。
  6) has passed;
  7) have spoken;
  8) has been sleeping;
  9) watches;
  10) have not seen。

  6)过去完成时;
  7)一般过去时;
  8)过去完成进行时;
  9)过去进行时;
  10)过去完成时。
  2) saw / had done;

  3) had begun;
  4) had been doing;
  5) shared / were;
  6) did not pass / had not prepared; 【巩固练习】 (七)
  1. 判断下列各句的时态:
  1)一般将来时;
  2)将来完成时;
  3)一般将来时;
  4)将来进行时;
  5)将来完成时;
  2. 用括号中动词的适当时态填空
  1) will believe;
  2) will have returned;
  3) is wondering;
  4) will go;
  5) will have started; 【巩固练习】 (八) 用所给动词的适当时态填空
  1) invented;
  2) offer;
  3) have been sitting;
  4) brought;
  5) has not paid;

  7) seemed / saw;
  8) found / was digging;
  9) had learned;
  10) had been working。

  6)一般将来时;
  7)一般将来时;
  8)将来进行时;
  9)一般将来时
  10)将来完成时。
  6) will not do;
  7) will have closed;
  8) will be picking;
  9) will be flying;
  10) will have completed。

  6) had seen;
  7) was making;
  8) has been working;
  9) am preparing;
  10) has happened。
谓语( 第三讲 谓语(二) 语态 (Voice)
【语法讲解】 一、形式 汉语里, 我们会听到类似这样的句子:
  1) “我打他了。 ”
  2) “他被我打了。 ” 这两个句子表达的是同样的内容,但第一句强调的是“是我打的他” ,而第二句强调的是 “是他挨打了” 。两个句子的侧重点有所不同。第一句“我”是主语,谓语“打”这个动作是 “我”发出的,所以第一句在语法上叫做“主动语态” ;第二句“他”是主语, “他”是“打” 这个动作的承受者,所以第二句在语法上叫做“被动语态” 。与之相对应的英语译文是:
  1)I beat him.
  2) He was beaten by me. 汉语里的被动语态是通过“被”字体现的,而英语中,被动语态是通过 “be+及物动词 及物动词 的过去分词”的这一形式体现出来的。以动词 do 为例,常用的被动语态的各种时态的形式如 下:
12
现在时 一般 进行 完成 is (am, are) done is (am, are) being done have (has) been done
过去时 was (were) done was (were) being done had been done
将来时 will (shall) be done
过去将来时 would (should) be done
【特别提醒】
  1) 被动语态中,助动词 be 有时态、人称和数的变化。
  2) 能够在被动语态中使用的动词必须是“及物动词” ,因为只有及物动词才有宾语,才 能将其宾语转换为被动语态句中的主语。
  3) 在被动语态句中,通常不用指出动作的执行者。如果有必要指出,则在句末用介词 by +代表动作执行者的名词或代词来表示。 【强化练习】 判断下列被动语态句的时态
  1) Cars are seen everywhere in cities.
  2) The work was finally finished.
  3) Mary will be invited to dinner tonight.
  4) The window has been broken.
  5) The classroom is being cleaned by the students.
  6) The house had been repaired before he came back.
  7) He said that no water would be brought to the river if there was no rain.
  8) The program was being broadcasted when he cooked. 【练习解析】 判断被动语态句的时态主要以助动词 be 的变化为依据。因此: 1 句中 are 说明本句是一般现在时; 5 句中 is being 说明本句是现在进行时; 2 句中 was 说明本句是一般过去时; 6 句中 had been 说明本句是过去完成时; 3 句中 will be 说明本句是一般将来时; 7 句中 would be 说明本句是过去将来时; 4 句中 has been 说明本句是现在完成时; 8 句中 was being 说明本句是过去进行时。 二、主动语态向被动语态的转换 主动语态向被动语态的转换可以分为三步:
  1) 确定句子的主、谓、宾;
  2) 确定句子的时态;
  3) 将主动语态句中的宾语转换为被动语态句中的主语, 并要求被动语态句中的助动词 be 在人称和数上与之保持一致。被动语态句的时态与原句一致,原句的谓语动词要变为 过去分词放在助动词 be 之后。 例如: People keep all the books in good order in the library.
  1) 句子的主语是 people,谓语是 keep,宾语是 all the books;
  2) 句子的时态是一般现在时;
  3) 将主动语态句的宾语 all the books 用作被动语态句的主语, 助动词 be 变为一般现在时 are, 将 keep 变为过去分词 kept。动作执行者 people 在被动语态句中可以省略。
13
所以,这句话的被动语态的形式为: All the books are kept in good order in the library. 再例如: The police asked each of them about the accident.
  1) 句子的主语是 the police,谓语是 asked,宾语是 each of them;
  2) 句子的时态是一般过去时;
  3) 将主动语态句的宾语 each of them 用作被动语态句的主语, 助动词 be 变为一般过去时 was, ask 的过去分词是 asked。 动作的执行者 the police 可以放在句末, 通
 

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