Chapter 1 1 - The definition of a word comprises the following points:
《英语词汇学》复习资料第一章 英语词汇学》
  2. 15%
  4. 20%
  6. 25%
  7. 10%
  8. 10%
  9. 15%
  10. 5%
第一章 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Words and Vocabulary

  1. Word ?? A word is a minimal free form of a language that has a given sound and meaning and syntactic function.
  2. There is no logical relationship between sound and meaning as the symbolic connection between them is arbitrary and conventional. E.g. “woman” means ’Frau’ in German, ’Femme’ in French and ’Funv ’in Chinese. On the other hand, the same sound /rait/ can mean right, rite and write, though denoting different things, yet have the same sound.
  3. The difference between sound and form result from 4 major factors. (At least 80%of the English words fit consistent spelling patterns) a). the internal reason is English alphabet does not have a separate letter to represent each sound in the language. b). Pronunciation has changed more rapidly than spelling c). Influence of the work of scribes/printing freezes the spelling of words in 1500 d). Borrowing of foreign language
  4. Vocabulary ?? Vocabulary is most commonly used to refer to the sum total of all the words of a language. It can also refer to all the words of a given dialect, a given book, a given subject and all the words possessed by an individual person as well as all the words current in a particular period of time in history. The general estimate of the present day English vocabulary is over 1 million words.

  5.Classification of Words?by use frequency, by notion, by origin

  1). Basic word stock ? the foundation of the vocabulary. )

  1. all national character (most important)? natural phenomena most common things and phenomena of the human body and relations world around us names of plants and animals action, size, domain, state numerals, pronouns, prep. ,conj.
  2. stability ? they donate the commonest thing necessary to life, they are like to remain unchanged. Only relative, some are undergoing some changes. But the change is slow. e.g. arrow, bow, chariot, knight ? past electricity, machine, car, plane ?? now
  3. productivity ? they are mostly root words or monosyllabic words, they can form new words with other roots and affixes. e.g. foot ? football, footage, footpath, footer
  4. polysemy 多义性? often possess more than one meaning. Become polysemous. e.g. take to move or carry from one place to another to remove
  5. collocability 搭配能力强? quite a number of set expressions, idiomatic usages, proverbial saying and others e.g. heart ? a change of heart, a heart of gold
Non-basic vocabulary ??

  1. terminology 专业术语 ? technical terms photoscanning, hepatitis, indigestion, penicillin, algebra, trigonometry, calculus

  2. jargon 行业术语? specialized vocabulary in certain professions. Bottom line, ballpark figures, bargaining chips, hold him back, hold him in, paranoid
  3. slang ?? substandard words often used in informal occasions dough and bread, grass and pot, beaver, smoky, bear, catch, holler, Roger, X-rays, Certain words are labeled slang because of their usage.
  4. argot 行话,黑话? words used by sub-cultured groups can-opener, dip, persuader cant, jargon , argot are associated with, or most available to, specific groups of the population.
  5. dialectal words ? only by speakers of the dialect beauty, chook, cocky, station, auld, build, coo, hame, lough, bog
  6. archaisms 古语 ? words no longer in common use or restricted in use. In older poems, legal document and religious writing or speech.
  7. neologism 新词,旧词新意 ? newly created words with new meaning e.g. microelectronics, futurology, AIDS, internet, E-mail old meaning acquired new meaning e.g. mouse, monitor

  2). Content word (notional 猜测的,理论上的 word) ? denote ) 猜测的, ) clear notions. Functional word(empty word,form word)? do not have notions , ) of their own, express the relation between notions, words and , , sentences.
二者区别: a. Content words constitute the main body of the English vocabulary are numerous. Functional words are in a small number.
b. Content words are growing. Functional words remain stable. c. Functional words do far more work of expression than content words.

  3). Native words ? are words brought to Britain in the 15 century ) by the German tribes. Anglo-Saxon Words,
  60,000 , , ,
What is true of the basic word stock is also true of native world. More are
  1. neutral in style (not stylistical specific )
  2.frequent in use (in academic fields and science French, Latin or Greek are used) (usage 70-90%) Borrowed words (loan words, borrowing) ? words taken over from foreign language. 80%
According to the degree of assimilation and manner of borrowing, , we can bring the loan words under 4 classes.

  1.Denizens 同化词 ? words borrowed early and now are well assimilated into English language. e.g. port from portus(L) shift, change, shirt, pork cup from cuppa(L)
  2.Aliens 异形? retained their original pronunciation and spelling e.g. décor(F) blitzkreeg(G) emir, intermez, rowtow, bazaar, rajar, status quo
  3.translation loans ? formed from the existing material in the English language but modeled on the patterns taken from another language.
  1). Word translated according to the meaning e.g. mother tough from lingua maternal(L) black humor from humor noir long time no see, surplus value, master piece

  2). Words translated according to the sound e.g. kulak from kyrak(Russ) lama from lama(Tib) ketchup tea
  4. Semantic loans ? their meaning are borrowed from another language e.g. stupid old dump new sassy dream old joy and peace pioneer old explorer/person doing pioneering work new a member of the young pioneer fresh old impertinent, sassy, cheeky 第二章
Chapter 2 The development of the English Vocabulary

Indo-European 印欧语系 language family (Europe, the Near East, India) Balto ?Slavic 巴尔特-斯拉夫 Indo-Iranian 印度伊朗语系 Italic-Germanic 意大利德国日耳曼 语系 Prussian Persian Portuguese Norwegian 普鲁士-波斯-葡萄牙-挪威语系 Lithuanian Hindi Spanish Icelandie 立陶宛-印地-西班牙-冰岛 Polish Italian Danish 波兰-意大利-丹麦 Bulgarian Roumanian Swedish 保加利亚-罗马尼亚-瑞典 Slovenian French English 斯洛文尼亚-法语-英语
Russian German 俄罗斯-德意志 Albanian Armenian Celtic Hellenic 阿尔巴尼亚-美国-凯尔特-希腊 Irish Greek 爱尔兰-希腊 Breton 法国布利多尼 Scottish 苏格兰

  2. History (时间,历史事件,特征) 时间,历史事件,特征)

  1) Old English (450-11
  50) totally
  60,000 words
The 1st people known to inhabit England were Celts 凯尔特, the language was Celtic. The second language was the Latin of the Roman Legions. The Germanic tribes called angles 盎格鲁, Saxons 撒克逊 and Jutes 朱特人 and their language, Anglo-Saxon dominated and blotted out the Celtic. Now people refer to Anglo-Saxon as old English. At the end of 6th century, the introduction of Christianity has a great impact on the English vocabulary. The common practice was to create new words by combining two native words. In the 9th century, many Scandinavian words came into English. At least 900 words of Scandinavian are in modern English, our daily life and speech. 特点: highly inflected language complex endings or vowel changes (full ending)
  2) Middle English (1150-15
  00) English, Latin, French
Until 10
  66, although there were borrowings from Latin, the influence on English was mainly Germanic. But the Norman Conquest started a continual flow of French words into English. By the end of the 13th century, English gradually come back into public areas. Between 1250 and 150 about 9000 words of French origin come into English. 75% of them are till in use today. As many as 2500 words of Dutch origin come into English. 特点: fewer inflections leveled ending
  3) Modern English (1500-up to now) early modern English (1500-17
  00) late modern English(1700-up to now) The Renaissance, Latin and Greek were recognized as the languages of the Western world’s great literary heritage. The Industrial Revolution was in the mid-17 century. With the growth of colonization, British tentacles began a stretching out of to every corner of the globe, thus enabling English to absorb words from all major languages of the world. After World War II, many new words have been created to express new ideas, inventions and scientific achievements. More words are created by means of word-formation. thousands and thousands of new words have been entered to express new ideas inventions, and scientific achievements. more words are created by means of word-formation. in modern English, word endings were mostly lost with just a few exceptions English has evolved from a synthetic language to the present analytic language.
science and technology terms make up about 45% of new words. words associated with life-style constitute of 24% and social and economic terms amount to over 10% . mention should be made of an opposite process of development i.e. old words falling out if use. 特点: ending are almost lost.

  3. Three main sources new words

  1.The rapid development of modern science and technology
  2.Social, economic and political changes
  3.The influence of other cultures and languages

  4. Three modes of vocabulary development

  1. Creation ? the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. (This is the most important way of vocabulary expansion.) (
  2. Semantic change - an old form which take on a new meaning to meet the new need. (
  3. Borrowing ? to take in words from other languages.(particularly in earlier time) (
  4. (Reviving archaic or obsolete 恢复古时或已不用的) French 30%, Latin 8%, Japanese Italian 7%, Spanish 6%, German Greek 5%, Russian Yiddish 犹太人使用的 4% 第三章
Chapter 3 Word Formation I

  1. Morpheme ?? A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. (The smallest functional unit in the composition of words.)
  2.Morph?? A morpheme must be realized by discrete units. These actual spoken minimal carriers of meaning are morphs.

  3.Monomorphenic words ? morphemes are realized by single morphs.
  4.Allomorph??Some morphemes are realized by more than one morph according to their position. Such alternative morphs are allomorphemes. E.g. the morpheme of plurality (-s) has a number if allomorphemes in different sound context, e.g. in cats/s/, in bags/z/, in matches/iz/.
  5. Free morphemes or Free root ?? The morphemes have complete meaning and van be used as free grammatical units in sentences, e.g. cat, walk. They are identical with root words. morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free.
  6. Bound Morphemes ?? The morphemes cannot occur as separate words. They are bound to other morphemes to form words, e.g. recollection (re+collect+ion) collect ? free morpheme re-and ?ion are bound morphemes. (include bound root and affix) Bound morphemes are found in derived words.
  7. Bound root ?? A bound root is that part of the word that carries the fundamental meaning just like a free root. Unlike a free root, it is a bound form and has to combine with other morphemes to make words. Take -dict- for example: it conveys the meaning of “say or speak” as a Latin root, but not as a word. With the prefix pre-(=before) we obtain the verb predict meaning “tell beforehand”。 Contradict “ speak against”。 Bound roots are either Latin or Greek. Although they are limited in number, their productive power is amazing.
  8. Affixes ?? Affixes are forms that are attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. Almost affixes are bound morphemes.
  9. Inflectional morphemes or Inflectional affixes ?? Affixes attaches to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional morphemes. The number of inflectional affixes is small and stable. a. There is the regular plural suffix -s (-es) which is added to nouns such as machines, desks. b. Simple present for the third person singular. ?s(-es) c. The possessive case of nouns. ’s d. ?er and ?est to show comparative and superlative degree e. The past tense marker ?ed
f. ?ing to form present participles or gerunds.
  10. Derivational morphemes or Derivational affixes ?? Derivational affixes are affixes added to other morphemes to create new words.
  11. Prefixes ?? Prefixes are affixes that come before the word, such as, pre+war, sub+sea
  12. Suffixes ?? suffixes are affixes that come after the word, for instance, blood+y.
  13. Root ?? A root is the basic form of a word, which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. ( What remains of a word after the removal of all affixes. ) .e.g. “intern



   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...


   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...


   中华英语学习网 中华英语学习网 官方总站:圣才学习网 官方总站:圣才学习网 2008 年职称英语考试学习复习笔记 英语等级考试介绍 在本辅导中将结合人事部颁发的“全国专业技术人员等级考试大纲”、“全国专业技术人员职称英语等 级考试指南”以及 1999 年的考题向大家介绍职称英语等级考试的内容、水平、题型以及解题的思路、方法 等。 目的是为了帮助大家熟悉这种考试形式,提试成绩。 第一讲主要是和大家介绍职称英语等级考试的特点,如何 ...


   我这篇文章不是针对四六级或雅思词汇,而是针对所有的英文词汇学习,因 为其实学习方法是一致的。虽然我自己相当讨厌把语言当考试工具,但既然大家 还是得考试,只好也说一些准备考试的方法。 不过我还是提倡稳扎稳打的基本功夫。 1.多做题,搞懂每一题,不要有生词。 不确定为什么答案是 B 就查字典。推荐朗文及牛津辞典。最好用英英,次之 中英双解,最不推荐用中英辞典,这样永远学不好。查单词时,一定要从从头看 到尾,把各种解释、用法、例句都快快看过一次。查字典找句你觉得不错的例句 多看,自己最好也造一句写 ...


   Lexicology(英语词汇学 英语词汇学) English Lexicology(英语词汇学) Lexicology: Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, inquiring into the origins and meanings of words. lexicology: The Nature and Scope of English lexicology English lexicology aims at investigating a ...


   中考词汇专项复习 A Quick-answering Game A30分 分 词汇大比拼 B50分 分 游戏规则( 游戏规则(game rules): ): 本游戏共有四种题型, 本游戏共有四种题型,各占不同的分值 (其中 四种题型 其中 A、B部分各两题,C、D部分各有三题),分 部分各两 部分各有三 , 、 部分各 、 部分各有 成两组进行抢答 每组有500分基础分,答对 抢答, 分基础分, 成两组进行抢答,每组有 分基础分 加上相对应的分值,答错扣分。 加上相对应的分值,答错扣分。 C ...


   浅谈小学英语词汇学习 我们说的每一个句子,每一段话都是由一个个词语组成的,在学习语言的初级阶段,积 累一定量的英语词汇是非常重要的。词汇好比是基石,基础打牢了才能进一步学习语法,进 行阅读。有学者把语法分为词汇和句法,从这个意义上,我们也看出了词汇学习的重要性。 学习英语是从学习英语词汇开始的,对于小学生而言,课本的编排与学生生活紧密相联, 都是由浅入深的。小学生学习词汇离不开记忆,那么记忆词汇是不是词汇学习的全部呢?不 言而喻,答案自然是否定的。 针对小学生,学习词汇可以归纳为七个层次:第 ...


   21 0 0年 8月  长 治 学 院 学 报  Ju o mM fC a gh  ie  ̄  o  h n z i Unvmi A g 2 0 u .,01   Vo .7. . 12 No4  第2卷 7 第4 期  大学英语词汇学 习策略研究  孙 丽艳  ( 山西青年管理干部学院 应用外语 系, 山西 太原 摘 000 ) 30 1  要: 在大学英语 词汇学习中, 存在 一些问题 , 针对存在的 问题 , 文章提 出词汇教学的策略 : 强语音教 学, 加 学习词法 、   单词辨析 ...


   浅谈初中英语词汇学习策略 摘要:词汇教学是英语教学中的一个重要组成部分,《英语新课程标准》对 初中英语词汇教学提出了更高的要求. 本文通过简介词汇和词汇学习策略的重要 性,分析当前初中英语词汇教学中存在的一些问题,并提出了初中英语词汇学习 的若干策略,以利于提高学生英语学习词汇的效率,从而有效地促进英语学习. 关键词:词汇教学 一,词汇的重要性 词汇和语音,语法一起构成了语言学习的三大基本要素,它是语言学习的必 要因素之一,是构成语言的基本材料.词汇在语言学习(特别是二语学习)和应用 中的地 ...


   下面这 41 组英语六级重点词汇,是通过总结历年考试真题而得出来 的,尽管是纯英文式的、没有中文解释,但是对备考英语六级的网友 而言还是有一定帮助的! 1. defy 公然反抗/ verify 证明,确定 / certify 证明,证实 / rectify 纠 正,整顿 / justify / magnify / amplify / simplify / specify 具体指定 ,详细 说明/ modify / qualify / simplify / clarify / terrify ...


【人教版】2011中考英语考前错题本全集 (K字母篇)

   2011 中考英语考前错题本 (K 字母篇) 字母篇) keep  [误] She was keeping something to her father. [正] She was keeping something from her father. [析] "对某人隐瞒某事"要用"keep something from somebody"句型。 [误] He kept to repeat the word again and again. ...


   陈天 凤 浅谈 农 村 中 学 英 语 教 学 中 两 极 分 化 的 防 治 年 浅 谈 农 村 中学 英 语 教 学 中 两 极 分化 的 防治 潞 西 市 城 郊 中学 陈天凤 在 中学 英 语 教学 中 , 学生 “ 两极 分化 , ” 的现 收效 、 学 生 方 面 的主要 原 因 , 象 极 其 明显 少 。 。 学 生 感 到外 语 难 学 , 花时多 , 初 一 新 生 刚 学 英语 时 热情高 , 好 奇心极 强 , , 兴趣浓 。 , , 教 师也 感 到 辛 辛 苦 苦 ...


   09同等学力备考 09同等学力备考 复习规划介绍 学苑教育集团 闫相国 13710635833 复习规划介绍 新大纲基本题型(A卷) " " " " 口语交际:每小题词0.5-1分),A节完成对话5-10题;B 节对话理解5-10题;考试时间10-15分钟 词汇 :20-30题每题0.5分,A节形式为单句选择替换;B节 形式为单句选择真空.考试时间10-15分钟) 45分钟. 阅读 :(30题30分)每题1 分,5-6篇文章.考试时间40- 完型填空: 1 ...


   海洪中学 呼夏宏 一、单项选择(15 分) ( )16. We need lots of A. vegetable ( )17. every day. B. chickens C. broccolis D. healthy food like French fries. A. He and I B. I and he C. he and me D. I and him. ( )18. -- What’s this in English? -. B. This’s a pen D. It’s ...


   网络文档便捷服务、脚本、软件定制,提供各类文档批量下载、上传、处理、脚本和软件定制。另有百度积分财富值赠送,相关营销工具 以及论文代查代检服务 史上最快最全的网络文档批量下载、 史上最快最全的网络文档批量下载、上传、 上传、处理, 处理,尽在: 尽在: 历年考研英语的高频单词(3~13次) 历年考研英语的高频单词(2次) 2011年考研大纲词汇 年 A A,an art ...