Chapter 1 1 - The definition of a word comprises the following points:
《英语词汇学》复习资料第一章 英语词汇学》
  1.
  2. 15%
  3.
  4. 20%
  5.
  6. 25%
  7. 10%
  8. 10%
  9. 15%
  10. 5%
第一章 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Words and Vocabulary

  1. Word ?? A word is a minimal free form of a language that has a given sound and meaning and syntactic function.
  2. There is no logical relationship between sound and meaning as the symbolic connection between them is arbitrary and conventional. E.g. “woman” means ’Frau’ in German, ’Femme’ in French and ’Funv ’in Chinese. On the other hand, the same sound /rait/ can mean right, rite and write, though denoting different things, yet have the same sound.
  3. The difference between sound and form result from 4 major factors. (At least 80%of the English words fit consistent spelling patterns) a). the internal reason is English alphabet does not have a separate letter to represent each sound in the language. b). Pronunciation has changed more rapidly than spelling c). Influence of the work of scribes/printing freezes the spelling of words in 1500 d). Borrowing of foreign language
  4. Vocabulary ?? Vocabulary is most commonly used to refer to the sum total of all the words of a language. It can also refer to all the words of a given dialect, a given book, a given subject and all the words possessed by an individual person as well as all the words current in a particular period of time in history. The general estimate of the present day English vocabulary is over 1 million words.

  5.Classification of Words?by use frequency, by notion, by origin

  1). Basic word stock ? the foundation of the vocabulary. )

  1. all national character (most important)? natural phenomena most common things and phenomena of the human body and relations world around us names of plants and animals action, size, domain, state numerals, pronouns, prep. ,conj.
  2. stability ? they donate the commonest thing necessary to life, they are like to remain unchanged. Only relative, some are undergoing some changes. But the change is slow. e.g. arrow, bow, chariot, knight ? past electricity, machine, car, plane ?? now
  3. productivity ? they are mostly root words or monosyllabic words, they can form new words with other roots and affixes. e.g. foot ? football, footage, footpath, footer
  4. polysemy 多义性? often possess more than one meaning. Become polysemous. e.g. take to move or carry from one place to another to remove
  5. collocability 搭配能力强? quite a number of set expressions, idiomatic usages, proverbial saying and others e.g. heart ? a change of heart, a heart of gold
Non-basic vocabulary ??

  1. terminology 专业术语 ? technical terms photoscanning, hepatitis, indigestion, penicillin, algebra, trigonometry, calculus

  2. jargon 行业术语? specialized vocabulary in certain professions. Bottom line, ballpark figures, bargaining chips, hold him back, hold him in, paranoid
  3. slang ?? substandard words often used in informal occasions dough and bread, grass and pot, beaver, smoky, bear, catch, holler, Roger, X-rays, Certain words are labeled slang because of their usage.
  4. argot 行话,黑话? words used by sub-cultured groups can-opener, dip, persuader cant, jargon , argot are associated with, or most available to, specific groups of the population.
  5. dialectal words ? only by speakers of the dialect beauty, chook, cocky, station, auld, build, coo, hame, lough, bog
  6. archaisms 古语 ? words no longer in common use or restricted in use. In older poems, legal document and religious writing or speech.
  7. neologism 新词,旧词新意 ? newly created words with new meaning e.g. microelectronics, futurology, AIDS, internet, E-mail old meaning acquired new meaning e.g. mouse, monitor

  2). Content word (notional 猜测的,理论上的 word) ? denote ) 猜测的, ) clear notions. Functional word(empty word,form word)? do not have notions , ) of their own, express the relation between notions, words and , , sentences.
二者区别: a. Content words constitute the main body of the English vocabulary are numerous. Functional words are in a small number.
b. Content words are growing. Functional words remain stable. c. Functional words do far more work of expression than content words.

  3). Native words ? are words brought to Britain in the 15 century ) by the German tribes. Anglo-Saxon Words,
  50,000-
  60,000 , , ,
What is true of the basic word stock is also true of native world. More are
  1. neutral in style (not stylistical specific )
  2.
  2.frequent in use (in academic fields and science French, Latin or Greek are used) (usage 70-90%) Borrowed words (loan words, borrowing) ? words taken over from foreign language. 80%
According to the degree of assimilation and manner of borrowing, , we can bring the loan words under 4 classes.

  1.Denizens 同化词 ? words borrowed early and now are well assimilated into English language. e.g. port from portus(L) shift, change, shirt, pork cup from cuppa(L)
  2.Aliens 异形? retained their original pronunciation and spelling e.g. décor(F) blitzkreeg(G) emir, intermez, rowtow, bazaar, rajar, status quo
  3.translation loans ? formed from the existing material in the English language but modeled on the patterns taken from another language.
  1). Word translated according to the meaning e.g. mother tough from lingua maternal(L) black humor from humor noir long time no see, surplus value, master piece

  2). Words translated according to the sound e.g. kulak from kyrak(Russ) lama from lama(Tib) ketchup tea
  4. Semantic loans ? their meaning are borrowed from another language e.g. stupid old dump new sassy dream old joy and peace pioneer old explorer/person doing pioneering work new a member of the young pioneer fresh old impertinent, sassy, cheeky 第二章
Chapter 2 The development of the English Vocabulary

  1.
Indo-European 印欧语系 language family (Europe, the Near East, India) Balto ?Slavic 巴尔特-斯拉夫 Indo-Iranian 印度伊朗语系 Italic-Germanic 意大利德国日耳曼 语系 Prussian Persian Portuguese Norwegian 普鲁士-波斯-葡萄牙-挪威语系 Lithuanian Hindi Spanish Icelandie 立陶宛-印地-西班牙-冰岛 Polish Italian Danish 波兰-意大利-丹麦 Bulgarian Roumanian Swedish 保加利亚-罗马尼亚-瑞典 Slovenian French English 斯洛文尼亚-法语-英语
Russian German 俄罗斯-德意志 Albanian Armenian Celtic Hellenic 阿尔巴尼亚-美国-凯尔特-希腊 Irish Greek 爱尔兰-希腊 Breton 法国布利多尼 Scottish 苏格兰

  2. History (时间,历史事件,特征) 时间,历史事件,特征)

  1) Old English (450-11
  50) totally
  50,000-
  60,000 words
The 1st people known to inhabit England were Celts 凯尔特, the language was Celtic. The second language was the Latin of the Roman Legions. The Germanic tribes called angles 盎格鲁, Saxons 撒克逊 and Jutes 朱特人 and their language, Anglo-Saxon dominated and blotted out the Celtic. Now people refer to Anglo-Saxon as old English. At the end of 6th century, the introduction of Christianity has a great impact on the English vocabulary. The common practice was to create new words by combining two native words. In the 9th century, many Scandinavian words came into English. At least 900 words of Scandinavian are in modern English, our daily life and speech. 特点: highly inflected language complex endings or vowel changes (full ending)
  2) Middle English (1150-15
  00) English, Latin, French
Until 10
  66, although there were borrowings from Latin, the influence on English was mainly Germanic. But the Norman Conquest started a continual flow of French words into English. By the end of the 13th century, English gradually come back into public areas. Between 1250 and 150 about 9000 words of French origin come into English. 75% of them are till in use today. As many as 2500 words of Dutch origin come into English. 特点: fewer inflections leveled ending
  3) Modern English (1500-up to now) early modern English (1500-17
  00) late modern English(1700-up to now) The Renaissance, Latin and Greek were recognized as the languages of the Western world’s great literary heritage. The Industrial Revolution was in the mid-17 century. With the growth of colonization, British tentacles began a stretching out of to every corner of the globe, thus enabling English to absorb words from all major languages of the world. After World War II, many new words have been created to express new ideas, inventions and scientific achievements. More words are created by means of word-formation. thousands and thousands of new words have been entered to express new ideas inventions, and scientific achievements. more words are created by means of word-formation. in modern English, word endings were mostly lost with just a few exceptions English has evolved from a synthetic language to the present analytic language.
science and technology terms make up about 45% of new words. words associated with life-style constitute of 24% and social and economic terms amount to over 10% . mention should be made of an opposite process of development i.e. old words falling out if use. 特点: ending are almost lost.

  3. Three main sources new words

  1.The rapid development of modern science and technology
  2.Social, economic and political changes
  3.The influence of other cultures and languages

  4. Three modes of vocabulary development

  1. Creation ? the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. (This is the most important way of vocabulary expansion.) (
  2. Semantic change - an old form which take on a new meaning to meet the new need. (
  3. Borrowing ? to take in words from other languages.(particularly in earlier time) (
  4. (Reviving archaic or obsolete 恢复古时或已不用的) French 30%, Latin 8%, Japanese Italian 7%, Spanish 6%, German Greek 5%, Russian Yiddish 犹太人使用的 4% 第三章
Chapter 3 Word Formation I

  1. Morpheme ?? A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. (The smallest functional unit in the composition of words.)
  2.Morph?? A morpheme must be realized by discrete units. These actual spoken minimal carriers of meaning are morphs.

  3.Monomorphenic words ? morphemes are realized by single morphs.
  4.Allomorph??Some morphemes are realized by more than one morph according to their position. Such alternative morphs are allomorphemes. E.g. the morpheme of plurality (-s) has a number if allomorphemes in different sound context, e.g. in cats/s/, in bags/z/, in matches/iz/.
  5. Free morphemes or Free root ?? The morphemes have complete meaning and van be used as free grammatical units in sentences, e.g. cat, walk. They are identical with root words. morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free.
  6. Bound Morphemes ?? The morphemes cannot occur as separate words. They are bound to other morphemes to form words, e.g. recollection (re+collect+ion) collect ? free morpheme re-and ?ion are bound morphemes. (include bound root and affix) Bound morphemes are found in derived words.
  7. Bound root ?? A bound root is that part of the word that carries the fundamental meaning just like a free root. Unlike a free root, it is a bound form and has to combine with other morphemes to make words. Take -dict- for example: it conveys the meaning of “say or speak” as a Latin root, but not as a word. With the prefix pre-(=before) we obtain the verb predict meaning “tell beforehand”。 Contradict “ speak against”。 Bound roots are either Latin or Greek. Although they are limited in number, their productive power is amazing.
  8. Affixes ?? Affixes are forms that are attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. Almost affixes are bound morphemes.
  9. Inflectional morphemes or Inflectional affixes ?? Affixes attaches to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional morphemes. The number of inflectional affixes is small and stable. a. There is the regular plural suffix -s (-es) which is added to nouns such as machines, desks. b. Simple present for the third person singular. ?s(-es) c. The possessive case of nouns. ’s d. ?er and ?est to show comparative and superlative degree e. The past tense marker ?ed
f. ?ing to form present participles or gerunds.
  10. Derivational morphemes or Derivational affixes ?? Derivational affixes are affixes added to other morphemes to create new words.
  11. Prefixes ?? Prefixes are affixes that come before the word, such as, pre+war, sub+sea
  12. Suffixes ?? suffixes are affixes that come after the word, for instance, blood+y.
  13. Root ?? A root is the basic form of a word, which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. ( What remains of a word after the removal of all affixes. ) .e.g. “intern
 

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