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  1.希腊罗马 Homer Author of epics Sappho Lyric poet 三大悲剧家: Aeschylus Tragic dramatist Sophocles Tragic dramatist Euripides Tragic dramatist 喜剧家: Aristophanes 历史学家: Herodotus wrote about wars between Greeks and Persians Father of history Thucydides wrote about wars between Athens and Sparta and Athens and Syracuse the greatest historian that have ever lived
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哲学和科学: Pythagoras All things were numbers founder of scientific mathematics Heracleitue Fire is the primary element Democritus Materialist, one of the earliest exponents of the atomic theory Socrates Dissect of oneself, virtue was high worth of life, dialectical method Plato Man have knowledge because of the existence of certain general ideas Aristotle Direct observation, theory follow fact, idea and matter together made concrete individual realities Euclid a textbook of geometry Archimedes when a body is immersed in water its loss of weight is equal to the weight of the water displaced “Give me a place to stand and I’ll move the World” Others Diogenes (the Cynics) Pyrrhon(the Sceptics) Epicurus (the Epicureans) Zeno (the Stoics) 4th century B.C.后半叶希腊在 Alexander, king of Macedon 的领导下,5th century B.C.达 到顶峰,146 B.C.被罗马攻克
  2.基督教和圣经 Jews?以前叫 Hebrews,3800B.C.穿过中东沙漠,1300B.C.Moses 带领 Hebrews 离开埃及, 开始他们的 Exodus,他在 Sinai 山定了 ten commandments in the name of God,40 年后 Hebrews 定居 Pelestine, known as Canaan,Hebrew 人的历史口头传送记入 the old Testament, 6th century B.C.,他们在 Babylon 形成 synagogue(忧太集会)来发扬他们的教 义。
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Jesus Christ 生活在第一个罗马帝国 Augustus, Emperor Constantine 1 于 313 年宣布基督教合 法,Emperor Theodosius 于 392 年宣布基督教为国教。 Hebrew 人的历史口头传送记入 the old Testament,旧约包含 39 本书,写了从 1000B.C.100A.D.的事情,最重要的前五本是 Pentateuch,旧约主要由 Hebrew 写成,the New Testment 主要是 Greek 的形式, 包含 14 本书, 最古老的 Latin Bible 叫 Vulgate,在 1382 年被 John Wycliff 翻译成了英语,Greek Bible 叫 Septuagint
  3.中世纪 开始于 476 年西罗马帝国的衰败 5-11 世纪 a period in which classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritage merged 1054,教堂分裂为 the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church 反击 Moslems,开始了 Crusades Charles Martel 给士兵们 estates known as fiefs in 732 St. Thomas Aquinas(Scholasticism)写了 Summa Theologica,这本书 sums up all the knowledge of medieval theology 他认为 feudal hierarchy(层次,等级) of society is God’ s rule The power of feudal rulers is God’s will Pope is Christ’s Plenipotentiary Charlemagne and Alfred the Great encouraged learning by setting up monastery schools. They copied various ancient books and translated the Latin works into the venacular Roger Bacon and Experimental Science one of the earliest advocates of scientific research, called for careful observation Dante(但丁) 神曲 one of the landmarks of world literature Chaucer first modern poet in English literature
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  4.文艺复兴与宗教改革 14th and 17th Century Starting in Florence and Venice Boccaccio the greatest achievement of prose fiction in 中世纪 Petrarch Sonnet, father of modern poetry 文艺复兴早期的艺术家: Giotto forerunner of renaissance Brunelleschi showed a systematic use of perspective Donatello one of the first artists engaged in anatomy Giorgione made happy use of colour schemes to unify his pictures 意大利文艺复兴全盛时期的四位艺术家: Da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Known for his Titian Oil color the most prolific of the great Venetian painters of Western World Pre-Luther Religious Reformers John Wycliffe chief forerunner of the reformation, took up the translation of the Bible into English for the first time in 1382 Jan Hus Czech Religious leader John Calvin 基督教教义 one of the most influential theological works Calvinism Rabelais 拉伯雷 <巨人传> french writer Ronsard Pleiade 七星诗社代表人 法国第一个近代抒情诗人 Montaigne 蒙田 散文集 French Writer Cervantes father of modern European novel spain
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Thomas More British writer Shakespeare 作品包括<<哈姆雷特>><<麦克白>><<奥瑟罗>><<李尔王>><<威尼斯商 人>><<第十二夜>><<皆大欢喜>><<罗密欧与朱丽叶>><<安东尼与克莉奥佩特拉>><<亨利四 世>><<亨利五世>> crowned literature of England 代表欧洲文艺复兴的最高成就 Copernicus The father of modern astronomy 现代天文学之父 Vesalius marked the beginning of a new era in the study of anatomy (解剖学) founder of modern medicine Aldus Manutius foremost printer in Italy Machiavelli Father of political science Vosari 1492, Columbus 发现了 America 1487,Dias 发现了 the cape of good hope 1497,da Gama 发现了 the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope
  5. 17 世纪 Copernicus 天体运行论 Although he did not belong to the 17th century he was the forerunner of modern medicine Kepler Kepler’s Law (the three laws of planetary motion)德 国 the three laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’ discovery of the laws s of gravitation Galileo 意大利 acceleration in dynamics, the law of inertia, the law of falling bodies 动 力加速度,惯性定律,落体定律 Newton 英国
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Leibniz Distinguishes three levels of understanding: self-conscious(自我意识)conscious(意 识)unconscious/subconscious (潜意识)他和牛顿都是 caculus 的创始人 Milton Areopagitica, English revolution Bacon Knowledge is power 英国 反对 deductive method,创立了 inductive method 认 为哲学应该与神学分开 Hobbes 利维坦 Materialist (knowledge come from experience) Social Contract 英国 认为最好的统治方式是 monarchy Locke 政治论 Materialist views (ideas derived from sensation or from reflection) Social Contract 英国在英国革命中有两个领袖,Cromwell 和 John Milton Cromwell the man of action John Milton the man of thought 在英国文学史上 ranks with Shakespear and Chaucer Descartes 笛卡尔 Cartesian Doubt I think therefore I am 法国 it is generally believed that modern philosophy begins with Bacon in England and Descartes in France Corneille 高乃依熙得 法国第一部古典主义悲剧,表现责任与爱情的冲突 Racine the greatest tragic dramatist of French neoclassical theatre 表现情感和理性的冲 突 Moliere 达尔杜夫愤世嫉俗吝啬鬼 the best representative dramatist of French Classical comedies 很多科学器械在被发明:microscope, telescope, thermometer, barometer, pendulum 16
  89,the Bill of Rights 建立了 the Parliament 至高无上的权利 法国最著名的建筑:Palace of Versailles Garden Front East Front of the Louvre
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英国最著名建筑:St. Paul’s Cathedral
  6.启蒙运动 the age of reason 18th century intellectual movement starting from France the most important forerunners of the enlightenment were two 17th century Englishmen John Locke and Issac Newton.Locke’s materialist theory and Newton’s theory of gravitation Major force of the enlightenment is French Philosophes 18 世纪两大著名运动: The American War of Independence(17
  76)ended British colonial rule over the U.S. 独立宣言 The French Revolution (17
  89) ended the French Monarchy and the first French Republic was born in 1792 人权宣言 French Philosophy and Literature Montesquieu Separation of powers 法国启蒙运动的先驱 Voltaire most famous of his novels Rousseau one of the greatest figures of French enlightenment Diderot English Literature Pope spokesman in verse of the Age of Reason, translation of Homer, good at heroic couplet 擅长英雄双韵体 Defoe one of the greatest fiction writer of the 18th century England 鲁滨逊漂流记
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Swift the foremost satirist in the English language and one of the satiric masters of all time Henry Fielding Father of the English novel
Samuel Richardson The founder of English domestic novel Samuel Johnson editor of 18 世纪英国文学最著名的期刊 The Tatler 和 The Spectator, Addison 和 Steele 经常在上面 写文章 German Literature and Philosophy Lessing German dramastist German classicism Goethe Apprenticeship/Travels> the Greatest German Poets Schiller a founder of modern German literature Kant Waterhead of modern philosophy Propose the nebular hypothesis History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens> reason> The Musical Enlightenment J. S. Bach Christianity Major musicians of the musical Enlightenment being his crowning masterpiece
Handel 亨德尔
Bach and Handel showed the world Baroque musical architecture at its imposing best The Baroque period was followed by the Classical Period, roughly between 1750 and 1820 Haydn Classical period Viennese school Mozart
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Beethoven occupy a Pivotal position, leaning in much of his work towards the Romantic Movement in Music
  7. 浪漫主义 Romanticism late 18th and early 19th century starting from the ideas of Rouseau in France and from the Storm and Stress Movement in Germany The enlightenment brought about two revolutions and they caused Romanticism to rise: the French Revolution and the Industrial revolution New economic ideas were put forward by Adam Smith in his book , which laid the theoretical groundwork for capitalism. Romanticism in Germany The Storm and Stress Movement prepared the way for European Romanticism Goethe combined Romanticism with Classicism It was Love and Intrigue that made Schiller the best dramatist for the Storm and Stress The Jena School: Schlegel Brothers, Novalis and Tieck Heine: 海涅在 1836 年发表<<论浪漫派>>,宣告浪漫主义在德国文学中的统治地位的结束 Romanticism in England Blake: The Lakers: Wordsworth and Coleridge Byron: is considered his masterpiece the fact that the poet died for the Greek causes made him more respected his poem expressed an ardent love of liberty and a fierce hatred of tyranny Shelley noted for his lyrics Keats famous for his sonnets
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Walter Scott Romanticism in France Chateaubriand : Victor Hugo: 法国浪漫主义文学的最重要的作家。他于 1827 年发表的 Cromwell>是法国浪漫 主义运动的一篇重要宣言。他的长篇小说 巴黎圣母院 悲惨世界宣
扬了“爱”与“仁慈”等人道主义精神。The greatest poet of his day George Sand:法国浪漫主义文学最杰出的女作家 Romant
 

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